E1193-97 Standard Guide for Conducting Daphnia magna Life-Cycle Toxicity Tests
Copyright 1997 AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING AND MATERIALS, West Conshohocken, PA. All rights reserved.
1.1 This guide covers procedures for obtaining laboratory data concerning the adverse effects of a test material added to dilution water, but not to food, on Daphnia magna Straus, 1820, during continuous exposure from immediately after birth until after the beginning of reproduction using the renewal technique. These procedures will probably be useful for conducting life-cycle toxicity tests with other species of daphnids, although modifications might be necessary.
1.2 Other modifications of these procedures might be justified by special needs or circumstances. Although using appropriate procedures is more important than following prescribed procedures, results of tests conducted using unusual procedures are not likely to be comparable to results of many other tests. Comparison of results obtained using modified and unmodified versions of these procedures might provide useful information concerning new concepts and procedures for conducting life-cycle toxicity tests with D. magna .
1.3 These procedures are applicable to most chemicals, either individually, or in formulations, commercial products, or known mixtures, that can be measured accurately at the necessary concentration in water. With appropriate modifications these procedures can be used to conduct tests on temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH and on such materials as aqueous effluents (see also Guide E1192), leachates, oils, particulate matter, sediments, and surface waters. Renewal tests might not be applicable to materials that have a high oxygen demand, are highly volatile, are rapidly biologically or chemically transformed in aqueous solutions, or are removed from test solutions in substantial quantities by the test chambers or organisms during the test. If the concentration of dissolved oxygen falls below 4.0 mg/L of saturation or the concentration of test material in the test solution decreases by more than 20% between renewals, it might be desirable to renew the solutions more often or to conduct a flow-through test.
1.4 This guide is arranged as follows:
Section Referenced Documents 2 Descriptions of Terms Specific to This Standard 3 Summary of Guide 4 Significance and Use 5 Hazards 6 Apparatus 7 Facilities 7.1 Construction Materials 7.2 Test Chambers 7.3 Cleaning 7.4 Acceptability 7.5 Dilution Water 8 Requirements 8.1 Source 8.2 Treatment 8.3 Characterization 8.4 Test Material 9 General 9.1 Stock Solution 9.2 Test Concentration(s) 9.3 Test Organisms 10 Species 10.1 Age 10.2 Source 10.3 Brood Stock 10.4 Food 10.5 Handling 10.6 Harvesting Young 10.7 Quality 10.8 Procedure 11 Experimental Design 11.1 Dissolved Oxygen 11.2 Temperature 11.3 Loading 11.4 Preparing Test Solutions 11.5 Conditioning Test Chambers 11.6 Beginning the Test 11.7 Renewing Test Solutions 11.8 Duration of Test 11.9 Biological Data 11.10 Other Measurements 11.11 Analytical Methodology 12 Acceptability of Test 13 Calculation of Results 14 Report 15 Appendixes X1. Food X2. Statistical Guidance
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific hazard statements are given in Section 6.